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AMC 8 USA Math Olympiad

Probability- AMC 8, 2018 – Question 11

Try this beautiful problem from AMC 8. It involves basic statistics and data representation. We provide sequential hints so that you can try the problem.

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What are we learning ?

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Competency in Focus: Concept of Probability

This problem from American Mathematics Contest 8 (AMC 8, 2018) is based on calculation of probability. It is Question number 11 of the AMC 8 2018 Problem series.

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First look at the knowledge graph:-

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_image src=”https://www.cheenta.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/amc-811.png” alt=”calculation of mean and median- AMC 8 2013 Problem” title_text=” mean and median- AMC 8 2013 Problem” align=”center” _builder_version=”4.2.2″ min_height=”475px” height=”119px” max_height=”100px” custom_margin=”20px|20px|20px|20px|false|false” custom_padding=”10px|10px|10px|10px|false|false” box_shadow_style=”preset1″][/et_pb_image][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.27.4″ text_font=”Raleway|300|||||||” text_text_color=”#ffffff” header_font=”Raleway|300|||||||” header_text_color=”#e2e2e2″ background_color=”#0c71c3″ custom_padding=”20px|20px|20px|20px” border_radii=”on|5px|5px|5px|5px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ inline_fonts=”Aclonica”]

Next understand the problem

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.2.2″ text_font=”Raleway||||||||” text_font_size=”20px” text_letter_spacing=”1px” text_line_height=”1.5em” background_color=”#f4f4f4″ custom_margin=”10px||10px” custom_padding=”10px|20px|10px|20px” box_shadow_style=”preset2″] Abby, Bridget, and four of their classmates will be seated in two rows of three for a group picture, as shown. If the seating positions are assigned randomly, what is the probability that Abby and Bridget are adjacent to each other in the same row or the same column? $\textbf{(A) } \frac{1}{3} \qquad \textbf{(B) } \frac{2}{5} \qquad \textbf{(C) } \frac{7}{15} \qquad \textbf{(D) } \frac{1}{2} \qquad \textbf{(E) } \frac{2}{3}$  [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.0″][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”3.25″ custom_padding=”|||” custom_padding__hover=”|||”][et_pb_accordion open_toggle_text_color=”#0c71c3″ _builder_version=”4.3.1″ toggle_font=”||||||||” body_font=”Raleway||||||||” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”10px||10px” hover_enabled=”0″][et_pb_accordion_item title=”Source of the problem” open=”off” _builder_version=”4.3.1″ hover_enabled=”0″]

American Mathematical Contest 2018, AMC 8 Problem 11

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Basic Probability sum 

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Start with hints 

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_tabs _builder_version=”4.2.2″][et_pb_tab title=”HINT 0″ _builder_version=”4.0.9″]Do you really need a hint? Try it first![/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title=”HINT 1″ _builder_version=”4.2.2″]If you need any hint try from this: There are a total of $6!$ ways to arrange the kids.[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title=”HINT 2″ _builder_version=”4.2.2″]Abby and Bridget can sit in 3 ways if they are adjacent in the same column: For each of these seat positions, Abby and Bridget can switch seats, and the other 4 people can be arranged in $4!$ ways which results in a total of $3 \times 2 \times 4!$ ways to arrange them.[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title=”HINT 3″ _builder_version=”4.2.2″]By the same logic, there are 4 ways for Abby and Bridget to placed if they are adjacent in the same row, they can swap seats, and the other $4$ people can be arranged in $4!$ ways, for a total of $4 \times 2 \times 4!$ ways to arrange them.[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title=”HINT 4″ _builder_version=”4.2.2″]We sum the 2 possibilities up to get $\frac{(3\cdot2)\cdot4!+(4\cdot2)\cdot4!}{6!} = \frac{14\cdot4!}{6!}=\boxed{\frac{7}{15}}$[/et_pb_tab][/et_pb_tabs][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ fullwidth=”on” _builder_version=”4.2.2″ global_module=”50833″][et_pb_fullwidth_header title=”AMC – AIME Program” button_one_text=”Learn More” button_one_url=”https://www.cheenta.com/amc-aime-usamo-math-olympiad-program/” header_image_url=”https://www.cheenta.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/matholympiad.png” _builder_version=”4.2.2″ title_level=”h2″ background_color=”#00457a” custom_button_one=”on” button_one_text_color=”#44580e” button_one_bg_color=”#ffffff” button_one_border_color=”#ffffff” button_one_border_radius=”5px”]

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